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Anatomy & Physiology >> Nervous System >> Neurones

Organisation of the
Nervous System


Nervous System

The Brain and
Spinal Cord

Diseases and Disorders



Nerve tissue is composed of nerve cells - know as neurones - and neuroglia, a connective tissue which supports neurones.

A nerve cell is the basic unit of the nervous system on which everything is built. Like other types of cell, they have a membrane containing a nucleus and cytoplasm but have a characteristic shape that is long and narrow. Nerve cells are easily damaged by toxins and lack of oxygen and, unlike other cells in the human body, they are not usually replaced when they die.

A neurone is made up of:

Fig. 1 Motor Neurone

Motor or efferent cells

Motor nerves carry impulses from the brain or spinal cord to the muscles which then act on the impulse, producing movements or constriction. Motor nerves only trasmit to glandular and muscular tissues.

Sensory or afferent cells

Sensory nerves carry impulses from all parts of the body to the brain.