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Anatomy & Physiology >> Urinogenital System >> Diseases and Disorders

Urinary System

Male Reproductive

Female Reproductive

Diseases and Disorders


The Urinogenital System and Diseases and Disorders


Inflammation of the bladder, causing pain when urinating. Sometimes caused by infections. Very common in women due in part to the shorter length of the female urethra.

Kidney Stones

Deposits of substances found in urine which form solid stones within the renal pelvis, bladder or ureters. Extremely painful and often removed by surgery.

Nephritis - Bright's Disease

Inflammation of the kidney, resulting from causes other than infection. Often used to refer to a wide range of different inflammatory disorders.

Ectopic Pregnancy

This is a pregnancy which occurs outside the uterus. A fertilised ovum may develop inside the fallopian tube instead of travelling to the uterus. There is danger of haemorrhage and death.


Absence of menstruation. This can be caused by hypersecretion of testosterone in females, other hormonal imbalance, stress, radical weight loss anaemia or excessive exercise.


Painful menstruation. This is caused by a spasm or congestion of the uterus, imbalance of hormones or emotional disturbance.

Pre-menstrual Syndrome

This is depression, irritability, bloating, water retention and mastalgia brought on about one week before menstruation.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

This is a result of hypersecretion of female sex hormones, leading to irregular menstrual cycles, multiple growth of follicular ovarian cysts and sometimes infertility. 50% of patients are obese and become hirsuite, and are usually between the ages of 16 and 30.